Reverse Osmosis (also known as ‘RO’)

It is the process by which water molecules are forced through a 0.0001 micron semi-permeable membrane by water pressure. Long sheets of the membrane are ingeniously pressed together and rolled up around a hollow central tube in a spiral fashion. This rolled-up configuration is commonly referred to as a spiral wound membrane or module.

For the membrane to be usable, it must be in some type of container (membrane housing) so pressure can be maintained on its surface. It is this pressure that supplies the energy to force the water through the membrane, separating it from unwanted substances. Metals, organic compounds, and other contaminants are either too large or due to their chemistry are unable to pass through the reverse osmosis membrane.  The substances left behind are automatically diverted to a waste drain so they don’t build up in the system. This is accomplished by using a part of the unprocessed water (feed water) to carry away the rejected substances to the drain, thus keeping the membrane clean.

When used with sediment and activated carbon pre-filters, reverse osmosis systems can effectively remove up to 99% of all contamination making water safe and potable.

 

Reverse Osmosis Contaminant Removal List

Contaminant
Algae 99.9%
Aluminum 96-99%
Ammonium 96-99%
Arsenic +3 95-99%
Arsenic +5 95-99%
Barium 95-99%
Calcium 95-99%
Calcium Cloride 99%
Chloride 99.9%
Chlorinated Pesticides 99.9%
Chlorine 99.5%
Chromate 95-99%
Copper 95-99%
Criptosporidium Cysts 99.9%
Cyanide 90-95%
DDT > 99.9%
E.coli bacteria > 99.9%
Fecal bacteria > 99.9%
Fluoride 90-95%
Giardia Cysts 100%
Iron 95-99%
Lead 95-99%
Lindane > 99.9%
Magnesium 95-99%
Magnesium Cloride 99%
Mercury 95-99%
Mold 99.9%
Nickel 95-99%
Nitrate 3 90-99%
PCB >99.9%
Phosphate 95-99%
Potassium 94-99%
Salmonella typhi >99.9%
Sediment 99.9%
Silicate 95-99%
Silica SiO2 98%
Silver 95-99%
Sodium 95-99%
Sodium Fluoride 99%
Sodium Nitrate NaNO3 97-99%
Sulfate 95-99%
Zinc 95-99%

This list represents only a few of the contaminants removed or reduced by Reverse Osmosis. Results may vary depending upon water conditions, temperature, pressure.

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